If not filtered, the main lobe will have a bandwidth of twice the Nyquist bandwidth.

## Phase-shift keying

If unfiltered, the bandwidth of the main lobe is twice the Nyquist bandwidth or twice the symbol rate. Very useful calculator. It helped me understand enough that I could figure it out on my own. While most calculator on the web are tied to a particular operation mode like satellite or microwave, this tiny tool is very flexible and accommodates various input options for pretty much any mode of operation. This calculator is also extremely useful for amateur radio operators wishing to deploy digital modulation schemes.

The Nyquist bandwidth is the minimum bandwidth than can be used to represent a signal. This is the correct bandwidth for transmitters which deploy a Nyquist bandwidth filter, which is the case for most professional transmitters. For a given bandwidth Bthe highest theoretical symbol rate f sym is 2B. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Services Wanted Manufacturers Contact. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.This technical brief covers the basic characteristics of a digital modulation scheme known as quadrature phase shift keying.

In the world of wired electronics, analog signals exhibit continuous variations whereas digital signals assume ideally one of two discrete states. This distinction can be extended to systems that transmit data via electromagnetic radiation instead of electric current traveling through wires.

When used for analog signals, frequency modulation and amplitude modulation lead to continuous variations in the frequency or amplitude of a carrier wave. When modulation techniques are used for digital communication, the variations applied to the carrier are restricted according to the discrete information being transmitted. These schemes cause the carrier to assume one of two possible states depending on whether the system must transmit a binary 1 or a binary 0; each discrete carrier state is referred to as a symbol.

This two-bits-per-symbol performance is possible because the carrier variations are not limited to two states. In ASK, for example, the carrier amplitude is either amplitude option A representing a 1 or amplitude option B representing a 0. In QPSK, the carrier varies in terms of phase, not frequency, and there are four possible phase shifts.

We can intuitively determine what these four possible phase shifts should be: First we recall that modulation is only the beginning of the communication process; the receiver needs to be able to extract the original information from the modulated signal.

Next, it makes sense to seek maximum separation between the four phase options, so that the receiver has less difficulty distinguishing one state from another. Note: The phase-shift-to-digital-data correspondence shown above is a logical though arbitrary choice; as long as the transmitter and receiver agree to interpret phase shifts in the same way, different correspondence schemes can be used.

The following table should clarify this:. Compared to modulation schemes that transmit one bit per symbol, QPSK is advantageous in terms of bandwidth efficiency. For example, imagine an analog baseband signal in a BPSK binary phase shift keying system.

BPSK uses two possible phase shifts instead of four, and thus it can transmit only one bit per symbol. The baseband signal has a certain frequency, and during each symbol period, one bit can be transmitted. A QPSK system can use a baseband signal of the same frequency, yet it transmits two bits during each symbol period.

Thus, its bandwidth efficiency is ideally higher by a factor of two. The article is good at explaining what QPSK is but I feel it leans too much on the four state design aspect. Perhaps this could be addressed briefly in the article. Don't have an AAC account? Create one now. Forgot your password? Click here.

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## QAM Formats: 8-QAM, 16-QAM, 32-QAM, 64-QAM, 128-QAM, 256-QAM

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Why is the allocated bandwith smaller with QAM or 64 compared to e. I am not a professional so I'm looking for an intuitive explanation. NxN-QAM means Quadrature Amplitude Modulation and it is a modulation scheme where the transmitted signal is the "mix" of two quadrature carriers whose amplitude is digitally modulated independently so as to give N different possible amplitude levels per each carrier.

If you consider a constant information transmission rate, i. Since we said that bandwidth is proportional to baud rate you see how the required bandwidth dropped using QAM for a constant bit rate. However, digital signals are not sinusoids.

At least instantaneously, because Fourier transforms strictly speaking apply only to periodic signals i. The very sharp edges of digital signals require high frequency sinusoids to exist; as they are low-pass-filtered, the corners will degrade into ringing, reducing the plateau representative of the binary value.

Meaning: for a digital signal of X Hz, you need the medium to have a bandwidth much greater than X Hz, "much greater" meaning at the point where the distortions at the corners of the signal are negligible for your application. In your case, distortion means a lower quality signal, therefore either an increased error bit rate for the same datarate, or a decreased datarate for the same error bit rate. This phenomena is more important for QAM64 than it is for QAM16 for example because the levels to resolve are much smaller.

That's certainly what Lorenzo Donati meant by "bandwidth proportional to baudrate". Edit: Here is an illustration of how the digital signals are constructed from sine waves. Imagine applying a low pass filter to these sine waves, and your will understand why the bandwidth cannot be simply equal to the baudrate. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered.If there is a good margin, higher orders of QAM can be used to gain a faster data rate, but if the link deteriorates, lower orders are used to preserve the noise margin and ensure that a low bit error rate is preserved. As the QAM order increases, so the distance between the different points on the constellation diagram decreases and there is a higher possibility of data errors being introduced.

Accordingly there is a balance to be made between the data rate and QAM modulation order, power and the acceptable bit error rate. Whilst further error correction can be introduced to mitigate any deterioration in link quality, this will also decrease the data throughput. QAM is in many radio communications and data delivery applications.

However some specific variants of QAM are used in some specific applications and standards. There is a balance between data throughput and signal to noise ratio required. As the order of the QAM signal is increased, i.

However the downside is that a better signal to noise ratio is required to achieve this. For some systems the order of the modulation format is fixed, but in others where there is a two way link, it is possible to adapt the order of the modulation to obtain the best throughput for the given link conditions.

The level of error correction used is also altered. In this way, changing the modulation order, and the error correction, the data speed can be optimised whilst maintaining the required error rate.

For domestic broadcast applications for example, 64 QAM and QAM are often used in digital cable television and cable modem applications. The order of the QAM modulation has to be set at the transmitter, because the transmission is only one way, and in addition to this, there are thousands of receivers, making it impossible to have a dynamically adaptive form of modulation.

For the many forms of wireless and cellular technology it is possible to dynamically alter the order of QAM modulation and error correction according to the link conditions between the two ends.

As data rates have risen and the demands on spectrum efficiency have increased, so too has the complexity of the link adaptation technology. Data channels are carried on the cellular radio signal to enable fast adaptation of the link to meet the prevailing link quality and ensure the optimum data throughput, balancing transmitter power, QAM order, and forward error correction, etc.

The constellation diagrams show the different positions for the states within different forms of QAM, quadrature amplitude modulation. As the order of the modulation increases, so does the number of points on the QAM constellation diagram.

It can be seen from these few QAM constellation diagrams, that as the modulation order increases, so the distance between the points on the constellation decreases. Accordingly small amounts of noise can cause greater issues. As the level of noise increases due to low signal strengths, so the area covered by a point on the constellation increases. If it becomes too large, then the receiver is unable to determine which position on the constellation the transmitted signal was meant to be, and this results in errors.Use this calculator to estimate the bandwidth needs or actual data usage of a website.

Be sure to include the bot traffic Google bots, Bing bots, etc as well as other connection needs. Often the bots use more bandwidth than real users.

Bandwidth is a term that has different meanings within different contexts. In terms of computing, bandwidth is defined as the bit-rate of available or consumed information and is typically expressed in units of bits per second along with its metric multiples.

Even within computing, bandwidth can be differentiated between network bandwidth, data bandwidth, and digital bandwidth. However, one of the most common ways in which the term bandwidth is used relates to the internet, as "the volume of information per unit of time that a transmission medium [channel] can handle. Due to factors such as protocols and encryption, such as transmission control protocol TCPwhich is largely used in internet traffic, a channel stated to have a bandwidth of X bits per second may not actually transmit data at X rate.

In information technology, a bit is the smallest unit of information. It can hold only one of two valuesâ€”0 or 1. A byte is a unit that consists of 8 bits. A byte can represent values from 0 to The bit is the unit of data transfer, meaning that a communications device or system with a bandwidth of 8 MB has a transfer rate of 8 Mega bits per second, which is equivalent to 1 Mega byte per second.

In relation, the unit of information storage is the byte. In terms of memory or a hard disk, 8GB of capacity would mean that 8 Giga bytes of information could be stored, which is equivalent to 64 Giga bits.

The amount of bandwidth a person or company needs is entirely dependent on how they plan to use the Internet. Streaming or hosting large amounts of video for example, requires far more bandwidth than simply browsing the Internet. The above calculators can be used to make estimation based on potential needs.

**Bit Rate and Baud Rate definition, relation, parameters & examples**

Financial Fitness and Health Math Other.The purpose of this presentation is to define those relationships. Through frequency domain multiplexing FDMthe cable network utilizes the electromagnetic spectrum to send hundreds of signals over a single coaxial cable simultaneously. This is accomplished by assigning each signal carrier to a specific range in the frequency spectrum.

The bandwidth of a signal carrier is the range of frequencies occupied by that signal carrier. Throughput, also referred to as channel capacity, refers to the rate at which digital bits of information are transferred over a connection. Throughput measurements are expressed in bits per second, abbreviated as bps. Just as alphabets contain a certain number of letters for every language, each modulation scheme has a specific number of unique symbols:. Each transmitted QAM symbol represents a group of two or more digital bits of data.

The number of bits associated with each symbol depends upon the type of modulation scheme used, and can be found using the formula:. Baud rate, also referred to as modulation rate or symbol rate, is a term used to express the number of symbols transmitted per second. In theory, Baud rate and bandwidth values would be equal. However, filters used in modulators exhibit a factor of inefficiency, which increases the required bandwidth slightly.

This inefficiency factor is known as filter alphaand is expressed as a percentage. The following formulas can be used to determine Baud rate:. If RF signal bandwidth is 2. Hartley's law states that an increased bandwidth results in a higher throughput, and vice versa. However, Hartley's law only applies when comparing similar modulation schemes.

By switching to a modulation scheme with more unique symbols, the same throughput can be achieved in a smaller bandwidth, or a higher throughput can be achieved in the same bandwidth.

How much bandwidth is required for a QPSK carrier, when the desired throughput is 1.Updated 21 Jul Quadrature Phase Shift Keying QPSK is a form of Phase Shift Keying in which two bits are modulated at once, selecting one of four possible carrier phase shifts 0, 90,or degrees. Retrieved April 11, Learn About Live Editor.

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Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.

### Symbol Rate Calculation

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